Dr Rahn Bailey discusses how for decades discrimination has played a central role in health disparities, and how gun violence compounds the problem through traumatic experiences, chronic stress and behavioral consequences. Dr Bailey argues that gun violence against self and others has far greater consequences than suicide and homicide numbers would suggest. Underfunding and misunderstanding of psychiatric services has resulted in people living with unresolved mental health challenges for long periods of their lives. But our understanding of the importance of addressing psychiatric disorders and associated stigmas is changing, with research indicating early intervention and trauma informed care should be central to management of most chronic and comorbid conditions. Some medical schools are integrating education about social determinants of health are making the connection between environment and mental health more explicit, leading to better assessments and better outcomes, and many violence prevention programs are succeeding. With Randall Morgan, M.D., Executive Director for the W Montague Cobb/NMA Institute.